Male:   The testes, epididymis, vas, prostate, and urethra are all parts of the male genital tract. The sperm are produced by loops of tiny tubes (seminiferous tubules) in the testes, which are located in the scrotum. As they move through the epidiymis, sperm cells develop (a narrow system of tubes on the surface of the testes). The vas is a hollow tube that connects the epididymis to the urethra and transports sperm.

Sperm development takes 3–4 months, and during this period, sperm production might be hampered by fever, exposure to medicines, toxins, radiation, local trauma, or infection.

“Semen analysis” is the most common laboratory test for male fertility. Masturbation or a specific condom are used to collect the sample after intercourse. Following three days of sexual abstinence, the sample must be collected in sterile containers.

Female:   The pituitary gland in your brain releases follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which encourages the ovary to generate follicles at the start of the menstrual cycle. One of these follicles grows quicker than the others, eventually becoming the “dominant follicle.” This follicle is where the egg will be released.

Oestrogen and progesterone are two of the most significant hormones produced by the ovaries. Progesterone, which is released after ovulation, is important in preparing the endometrium for pregnancy. Oestrogen promotes the growth of follicles and the development of the endometrium, whereas progesterone, which is released after ovulation, is important in preparing the endometrium for pregnancy.

When an egg is released, it is swept into the fallopian tube, where it is fertilised in the outer third of the tube, and then proceeds to the uterus, where it implants in the lining (endometrium), resulting in a pregnancy. If the egg is not fertilised, the endometrium is shed 14 days following ovulation as a menstrual period.

Requirement for conceptions to occur

  • Fully functional fallopian tubes.
  • The creation of watery mucus by the cervix around the time of ovulation, which allows the ejaculated sperm to flow into the uterus from the vagina.
  • A uterus that allows the embryo to be implanted.

From basic fertility tests and treatments including ovulation induction, follicular monitoring, diagnostic laparoscopy, hysteroscopy, and intra-uterine insemination (IUI) to the most sophisticated fertility treatments.

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