The head of a man’s sperm must connect to the exterior of the egg before it may fertilise a woman’s egg. Once joined, the sperm makes its way through the egg’s outer layer to the cytoplasm, where fertilization occurs. 

For a number of reasons, sperm may be unable to enter the outer layer. The sperm may be unable to swim or the egg’s outer layer may be thick or difficult to penetrate. In some circumstances, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can be used in conjunction with in vitro fertilisation (IVF) to aid in the fertilisation of the egg. A single sperm is injected directly into the cytoplasm of the egg during ICSI.

ICSI aids in the treatment of infertility issues such as:

  1. Artificial insemination (intrauterine insemination [IUI]) or IVF are not possible since the male spouse generates insufficient sperm.
  2. It’s possible that the sperm won’t migrate normally.
  3. It’s possible that the sperm will have problems adhering to the egg.
  4. Sperm may not be able to leave the male reproductive system due to a blockage.
  5. Traditional IVF has failed to fertilise eggs, regardless of sperm quality.
  6. Egg which have been retrieved from Ovaries are being used
  7. Eggs that had previously been frozen are being utilised
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